OCR – AS Media Studies

The Exam

The examination is 2 hours (including 30 minutes for viewing and making notes on the moving image extract) and candidates are required to answer 2 compulsory questions. The unit is marked out of a total of 100, with each question marked out of 50.

There are 2 sections to this paper:
Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation (50 marks)
Section B: Institutions and Audiences (50 marks)

Section A: TV Drama

You will be asked to answer a question on how one social group is represented in the extract through camerawork, editing, sound, and mise-en-scene. The question will specify which social group to focus on from one of the following:

  • Gender
  • Age
  • Sexuality
  • Ethnicity
  • Social class and status
  • Regional identity
  • Disability/ability

You demonstrate textual analysis of all of the following technical areas of moving image language and conventions in relation to the unseen extract:

  • Camera Angle, Shot, Movement and Composition
  • Mise-en-Scène
  • Editing
  • Sound

The focus of study for Section A is the use of technical aspects of the moving image medium to create meaning for an audience, focussing on the creation of representations of specific social types, groups, events or places within the extract.

The unseen moving image extract will be 4 to 5 minutes long for 4 times and will be from the following genre:

TV Drama 
The sequence will be taken from a contemporary one-off drama or series or serial drama programme scheduled on British television stations including some sourced from other countries. There will be viewing and note-making time for Section A.

Candidates are allowed to read the question before the extract is screened. They should then watch the moving image extract, without making notes, for the 1st screening. They should then make notes for the 3 subsequent screenings.

Section B: Audience & Institutions

This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas. The Exam Board will select 1 concept to devise a question for the exam.

Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with:

  • the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
  • the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
  • the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
  • the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;
  • the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
  • the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;
  • the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.


A study of a specific studio or production company within a contemporary film industry that targets a British audience (eg Hollywood, Bollywood, UK film), including its patterns of production, distribution, exhibition and consumption by audiences. This should be accompanied by study of contemporary film distribution practices (digital cinemas, DVD, HD-DVD, downloads, etc) and their impact upon production, marketing and consumption.





2. The importance of cross-media convergence and synergy in production, distribution & marketing


Cross-media convergence

Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form 1 product with the advantages of all of them.


The name given to the process whereby 2 or more media products are interlinked, for commercial or artistic purposes. Linked to the concept of franchises. For example, The Matrix franchise contains synergistic products including the films, the Animatrix DVD, the Enter the Matrix game and soundtrack CDs amongst others. Synergy is also linked to 360° marketing.

In another sense, synergy is created when companies are working together at a mutual benefit (of making a profit) but remaining separate.

Points that can be made:

Cross media convergence is important in production because when two major conglomerates come together, they will attract a mass audience because they are well known so more people are more likely to watch the film, thus it will be more likely to be successful.

Digital technology is enabling various media to converge in hubs, platforms and devices. For example, mobile phones these days are a lot more than simple hand held telephones. You can download and watch films on them, play music on them, take videos and photos, go online, use GPS and use a range of apps.

Cross media convergence and synergy will create more awareness for products of the film, such as selling merchandise might make people aware of a film that is coming out.

Case Studies – Application

*Case studies: A Field In England (Independent), Carol (Independent), How I Live Now (Independent), Frozen (Conglomerate) & Star Wars: Force Awakens (Conglomerate)

Walt Disney is a vertical integration company; they own Marvel, Pixar, MBC, ABC and Lucas Films. This helped the film industry because through production Disney and Lucas Films built a ‘global countdown’ buzz for Star Wars and this avoids piracy because everyone accesses the film at the same time so no country has seen it before anyone else.

The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice

What it really means:

How does the ownership of the production, distribution and exhibition companies affects the type of films that are made?

You have to apply the context of your film case studies to the 7 key concept areas. Here are some questions to think about on this specific concept.

Questions to think about:

1. How does the ownership in the film industry affect how films are produced?

2. How does the ownership in the film industry affect the distribution of film?

3. How does the ownership in the film industry affect the exhibition of films?

Past paper questions relevant to this concept area:

  • (Jan 2010) Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to national audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  • (Jan 2011) Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media area.
  • (Jan 2013) What impact does media ownership have upon the range of products available to the audiences in the media area you have studied.
  • (June 2015) To what extent does media ownership have an impact on the successful distribution of media products in the media area that you have studied?

You can also *Google* for any useful resources relating to this concept area, here’s some that I’ve found:

Issues Raised By Media Ownership from robertclackmedia






Section B – Key terminology

Art-house films

Adjective used to describe alternative, non-mainstream, ‘quality’ films (often foreign-language films). These films would often play in ‘arthouse’ (independently-owned) cinemas.

Audience consumption

What the audience like/use/watch. The audience consumer different texts (it could refer to technology they use, the films they watch or like).


A film that secures huge publicity and (more likely than not) huge box office sales.


Computer Generated Imagery. Refers to the (usually) 3-D effects that enhance all kinds of still and moving images, from text effects, to digital snow or fire, to the generation of entire landscapes.


Large multinational company with a range of media interests, evidencing concentration of ownership, e.g. News Corporation; Time-Warner, Walt Disney Company.


The information and experience(s) directed towards an end-user or audience. Content is “something that is to be expressed through some medium, as speech, writing or any of various arts”.

Cross media convergence

Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them.

Digital media technology

Digital media is digitized content that can be transmitted over the internet or computer networks. This can include text, audio, video, and graphics. This means that news from a TV network, newspaper, magazine, etc. that is presented on a Web site or blog can fall into this category.


The process of making sure a feature or short is available to screen in a cinema or at a film festival. Also the process by which films are made available on DVD. Preceded by production and followed by exhibition.


The point at which a feature or short is screened for the viewing public; preceded by production and distribution.


A series of films, TV programmes, games or other media products based on the same background characters or situations. Often crosses a range of media forms and platforms (for example, Star Wars films, TV series, website, games, toys, etc) Any product which has a sequel or spin-off can be considered the start of a franchise.

Global institution

A formal organization (with its own set of rules and behaviours) that creates and distributes media texts on a global scale.

Guerilla Marketing

The use of unconventional and low cost marketing strategies to raise awareness of a product. The aim is usually to create “buzz” and “word of mouth” around a film. Unusual stunts to gain publicity (P.R.) on the film’s opening weekend, etc.


The machines, wiring, and other physical components of a computer or other electronic system.


When a film plays for longer than originally intended, perhaps because of large audiences, or winning an award.


A high-end mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a standard feature phone. Smartphones serve to combine the functions of portable media players, compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units. Modern smartphones typically also include highresolution touchscreens, web browsers that can access and properly display standard web pages and allow high-speed data access via Wi-Fi and mobile broadband.

Horizontal Integration

Complementary businesses. In relation to film this means one large company owning several other companies in different media (E.g. owning a film production company and a magazine).

Vertical Integration

When a company owns all stages of the production, distribution and sale or, in the case of cinema, exhibition of its product.

Independent films

Also known as an indie films is a feature film that is produced outside of the major film studio system.

Institutional convergence

When companies merge together.


A formal organization (with its own set of rules and behaviours) that creates and distributes media texts.

International institution

A formal organization (with its own set of rules and behaviours) that creates and distributes media texts on an international scale.


The practice of promotion specifically in the film industry, and usually occurs in coordination with the process of film distribution.

Media consumption

The sum of information and entertainment media taken in by an individual or group. It includes activities such as interacting with new media, reading books and magazines, watching television and film, and listening to radio.

Media ownership

A process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organisations control increasing shares of the mass media. The best example would be to consider ‘Working Title’ and how much ownership they have over their productions, as they’re part of ‘Universal’.


The process of manufacturing, distributing, licensing and sale of T-shirts, toys, posters, key-rings etc that contain characters or designs from a movie.


Multi-screen cinemas located on the edge of large cities or conurbations with easy road access.

Niche audience

‘Niche’ is a fraction of a total audience or market. A relatively small segment of the audience or market with specific interests and tastes.


Date of release of a film in a specific market.


Period during which a media product is created (including, for example, filming, photographing, editing, printing, publishing, etc) leading to the final outcome(s).


The availability and fast access to certain products. This could be availability of cheaper, better quality hardware (like HD digital camera, etc) or the choice and access to films that the audience has (via the internet, cinema, television).

Pull marketing

Audience pulling the marketing by accessing websites or links related to the film.

Push marketing

Distributors pushing the film at audiences through mediums such as billboards and trailers.


The name given to the process whereby two or more media products are interlinked, for commercial or artistic purposes. Linked to the concept of franchises. For example, The Matrix franchise contains synergistic products including the films, the Animatrix DVD, the Enter the Matrix game and soundtrack CDs amongst others. Synergy is also linked to 360° marketing.

In another sense, synergy is created when companies are working together at a mutual benefit but remaining separate.

Target audience

A group of people that a product is specifically aimed at.

Technological convergence

The growing interactive use of digital technology in the film industry and media which enables people to share, consume and produce media that was difficult or impossible just a few years earlier.

The Big Six

The six companies that form the Hollywood system. These are 20th Century Fox, Universal Studios, Disney, Columbia, Paramount and Warner Bros.


Promotional campaigns (Happy Meals, car tvcs – you name it) where another company gets together with the film company and they promote their products jointly.

Unique selling point (USP)

The feature that will make the film standout from other films. The USP will be emphasized in any publicity etc.

User-generated content

A range of media content produced by members of the general public/amateurs using accessible and affordable media technology. Digital media technologies are used for blogging, podcasting, video, mobile phone photography, wikis, etc.

Viral marketing

The name given to any kind of promotion (often involving short video clips) which spreads in the manner of a virus (usually starting on the internet) via e-mail, mobile phones, texting or social networking sites. Often communicated via word-of-mouth rather than more traditional distribution mechanisms giving the viral an exclusive quality. Users are encouraged to pass on materials by themselves.


Building a brand through a ‘conversation’ with the consumer, usually online e.g. a Facebook fan page where consumers leave comments and download images and videos

Wide release

The film is released nationally in all markets.

Platform release

A limited opening at key cinemas to develop word of mouth. Once a good buzz has been achieved, the movie will open at more cinemas (wide release).

Exclusive and Limited runs release

Exclusive and limited runs begin with engagements at a limited number of screens, traditionally in large urban areas, such as Toronto. Based on favourable reviews and positive word-of-mouth, the film may move slowly to additional theatres.

Territorial saturation release

Territorial saturation involves saturating a territory with bookings, heavy advertising and promotion, before moving on to another territory.

Universal release

The film is released in several countries on the same day.

1. How does the ownership in the film industry affect how films are produced?

Points that can be made:

Independent companies such as Rook Films and particularly other smaller British independent production companies, which are not linked to an American conglomerate as a subsidiary company, have to rely on money from the BFI (British Film Institute) and the National Lottery which funded many British films such as Philomena.

Because independent companies are often low-budget and particularly in Britain on genre-based films, because they do not have the funds for CGI and 3D technology and be shot digitally.

Conglomerates that have vertically (when an institution owns shares or each part of the production, marketing, distribution and exhibition processes) and horizontally integrated  ownership (owns many different types of media across many industry) will have better production, marketing, distribution and exhibition of films, especially blockbuster films (a film with a high production budget of at least $100 million).

A conglomerate that has vertical integration enables them to control all aspects of the film from the beginning of the production to the end of the exhibition of the film, so they can ensure the film is to a high quality and therefore become a critically and financially successful film. Also, they will be able to save money by controlling all stages of the making of the film and you will be able to keep all the profit, rather than sharing the profit with the distribution company and others.

Also, having horizontal integration means conglomerates can promote and advertise the film across a wider range of media platforms from radio to television channels and so they are to reach a wider range of audiences from the young to the elderly and to a much more mass audience. They have a huge marketing budget that enables them to advertise the film across a wide range of media.

Major production companies can make big budget films because they are a part of a bigger conglomerate and therefore have more money available to make huge blockbuster films. Hence, their films are more focused on aesthetically pleasing special effects and impressively realistic set designs to give the film that ‘wow’ factor that will attract a larger audience.

Case Studies – Application

*Case studies: A Field In England (Independent), Carol (Independent), How I Live Now (Independent), Frozen (Conglomerate) & Star Wars: Force Awakens (Conglomerate)

The British historical psychological horror film, ‘A Field In England’ had a  budget of £316,879, with a £112,000 Print & Advertising budget, including £56,701 from the BFI.  Rook Films is not linked to American conglomerates as a subsidiary company, so they were  fully financed by Film4 and the BFI Distribution New Models. Because of the £316,879 budget they aren’t able to create same level of impressive visual effects as conglomerates which usually a combination of CGI, SFX & VFX.

Digital cameras have become cheaper and more accessible for independent, and Ben Wheatley, director of ‘A Field In England’,

Kevin McDonald’s film ‘How I Live Now’ was produced by Charles Steel and Alasdair Flind of Cowboy Films, and John Battsek and Andrew Ruhemann of Passion Pictures, and was co-developed by Film4 and the UK Film Council (abolished in 2011) and co-financed by Film4 and BFI Film Fund

Carol‘ was developed by Number 9 Films and Film4, and is co-financed by Film4 and Goldcrest Films. It is a Number 9 Films and Killer Films production in association with Larkhark Films Limited. The film’s development of  ‘Carol‘ was co-financed by the British company Film4 Production and its then-chief executive Tessa Ross, as the film had a troubled development period, facing problems with financing, rights, scheduling conflicts, and accessibility.

The highest-grossing film of 2013 ‘Frozen’ was produced by the Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures, which are divisions from the media conglomerate Disney. Disney are a famous and well-respected production company, and as a conglomerate it is also able to have control over all aspects of what it produces. Because ‘Frozen’ It had a massive budget of $150 million, it was able to do various things, which are:

  • It allowed their animators to use simulation-based engineering and created a snow simulator software application called ‘Matterhorn‘, the tool was capable of depicting realistic snow in a virtual environment and was used in at least 43 scenes in the film, including several key sequences.
  • They were able to have 50 effects and lighting artists to work together to create the “one single shot” in which Elsa builds her ice palace.
  • Overall, they were able to incorporate CGI (Computer-generated imagery) effect which was used to create realistic snow within the film and was able to be shot in stereoscopic 3D and lots of SFX effects (Special Effects) were used to help artists complete Frozen’s complicated effects.

The hit blockbuster film ‘Star Wars: Force Awakens’ was produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. (a subsidiary production company of Disney) and Abrams’ production company Bad Robot Productions. It had a gross budget of a whopping $306 million, which could have enabled them to use far more CGI and SFX effects within the franchise film, but J.J. Abrams decided to a different approaches, which included:

  • Using little CGI effects and more practical, traditional special effects. Abrams’ intention in prioritizing practical special effects was to recreate the visual realism and authenticity of the original Star Wars.
  • To that end, the droid BB-8 an actual semi-automated robot was a physical prop that was developed by Disney Research, created by special effects artist Neal Scanlan and operated live on set with the actors. 
  • Another exception was that apart from the usual professional digital cameras, they also used 65mm IMAX cameras for one important sequence, the Millennium Falcon chase through Jakku as seen in the first trailer.
  • In summary, they used real locations and scale models over computer-generated imagery to make it aesthetically similar to the original Star Wars trilogy.






Representation of Disability/Ability #1

Barnes (1992) argues that mass media representations of disability have
generally been oppressive and negative. People with disabilities are rarely
presented as people with their own identities. Barnes notes several common
media representations of people with disabilities.

  • In need of pity and charity – Barnes claims that this stereotype has grown in popularity in recent years because of television appeals such as Children in Need.
  • As victims – Barnes found that when people with disabilities are featured in television drama, they are three times more likely than able-bodied characters to be killed off.
  • As villains – people with disabilities are often portrayed as criminals or monsters, e.g. villains in James Bond films often have a physical impairment.
  • As super-cripples – Barnes notes that people with disabilities are often portrayed as having special powers or as overcoming their impairment and poverty. In Hollywood films, the impaired male body is often visually represented as a perfect physical specimen in a wheelchair. Ross notes that disability issues have to be sensational, unexpected or heroic in order to be interpreted by journalists as newsworthy and reported on.
  • As a burden – television documentaries and news features often focus on carers rather than the people with disabilities.
  • As sexually abnormal – it is assumed by media representations that people with disabilities do not have sexual feelings or that they are sexually degenerate.
  • As incapable of participating fully in community life – Barnes calls this the stereotype of omission and notes that people with disabilities are rarely shown as integral and productive members of the community such as students, teachers or parents.
  • As ordinary or normal – Barnes argues that the media rarely portray people with disabilities as normal people who just happen to have a disability. They consequently fail to reflect the real, everyday experience of disability.

Roper (2003) suggests that mass media representations of disability on telethons can create problems for people with disabilities and suggests that telethons over-rely on ‘cute’ children who are not that representative of the range of people with disabilities in Britain. Roper argues that telethons are primarily aimed at encouraging the general public to alleviate their guilt and their relief that they are not disabled, by giving money rather than informing the general public of the facts about disability.

Karpf (1988) suggests that there is a need for charities, but that telethons act to keep the audience in the position of givers and to keep recipients in their place as grateful and dependent. Karpf notes that telethons are about entertaining the public, rather than helping us to understand the everyday realities of what it is like to have a disability. Consequently, these media representations merely confirm social prejudices about people with disabilities, e.g. that they are dependent on the help of able-bodied people.



Representation of Class & Status #1

Representations – Monarchy

Nairn (1988) notes that contemporary media coverage of the monarchy has focused positively on every trivial detail of their lives, turning the Queen and her family into an on-going soap opera, but with a glamour and mystique far greater than any other media personality. Furthermore, mass media representations of the Queen are also aimed at reinforcing a sense of national identity, in that she is portrayed as the ultimate symbol of the nation. Consequently, the media regards royal events, such as weddings and funerals, as national events.

Representations – Upper class & Wealth

Neo-Marxists argue that mass media representations of social class tend to celebrate hierarchy and wealth. Those who benefit from these processes, i.e. the monarchy, the upper class and the very wealthy, generally receive a positive press as celebrities who are somehow deserving of their position. The British mass media hardly ever portray the upper classes in a critical light, nor do they often draw any serious attention to inequalities in wealth and pay or the overrepresentation of public-school products in positions of power.

Newman (2006) argues that the media focus very positively on the concerns of the wealthy and the privileged. He notes that the media over-focuses on consumer items such as luxury cars, costly holiday spots and fashion accessories that only the wealthy can afford. He also notes the enormous amount of print and broadcast media dedicated to daily business news and stock market quotations, despite the fact that few people in Britain own stocks and shares.

Representations – Middle Classes

4 broad sociological observations can be made with regard to mass media
representations of the middle classes.

  • The middle class are over-represented on TV dramas and situation comedies.
  • Part of the British newspaper market is specifically aimed at the middle classes and their consumption, tastes and interests, e.g. the Daily Mail.
  • The content of newspapers such as the Daily Mail suggests that journalists believe that the middle classes of middle England are generally anxious about the decline of moral standards in society and that they are proud of their British identity and heritage. It is assumed that their readership feels threatened by alien influences such as the Euro, asylum seekers and terrorism. Consequently, newspapers, such as the Daily Mail, often crusade on behalf of the middle classes and initiate moral panics on issues such as video nasties, paedophilia and asylum seekers.
  • Most of the creative personnel in the media are themselves middle class. In news and current affairs, the middle classes dominate positions of authority – the ‘expert’ is invariably middle class.

Representations – Working class

Newman argues that when news organisations focus on the working class, it is generally to label them as a problem, e.g. as welfare cheats, drug addicts or criminals. Working class groups, e.g. youth sub-cultures such as mods or skinheads, are often the subject of moral panics, whilst reporting of issues such as poverty, unemployment or single-parent families often suggests that personal inadequacy is the main cause of these social problems, rather than government policies or poor business practices. Studies of industrial relations reporting by the Glasgow University Media Group suggest that the media portray ‘unreasonable’ workers as making trouble for ‘reasonable’ employers.

Curran and Seaton (2003) note that newspapers aimed at working class audiences assume that they are uninterested in serious analysis of either the political or social organisation of British society. Political debate is often reduced simplistically to conflict between personalities. The content of newspapers such as The Sun and the Daily Star assumes that such audiences want to read about celebrity gossip and lifestyles, trivial human interest stories and sport.

Representations – Poverty

Newman argues that when the news media turn their attention to the most destitute, the portrayals are often negative or stereotypical. Often, the poor are portrayed in statistical rather than in human terms by news bulletins that focus on the numbers unemployed or on benefits, rather than the individual suffering and personal indignities of poverty.

McKendrick et al. (2008) studied a week’s output of mainstream media in 2007 and concluded that coverage of poverty is marginal in British media, in that the causes and consequences of poverty were very rarely explored across the news, documentaries or drama. Dramas such as Shameless presented a sanitised picture of poverty, despite featuring characters who were economically deprived, whilst family issue-based programmes such as The Jeremy Kyle Show treated poverty as an aspect of entertainment. Cohen notes that the media often fails to see the connection between deprivation and wealth.



Representation of Regional Identity #2

Things to consider and look out for:

  • —Can I identify where the characters are from within the country?
  • —Are people from different areas shown as having different interests, personalities, attitudes, behaviours? If so, how?
  • —Is their regional identity represented as being important in their life?
  • —Are people from particular regions portrayed as being better, more powerful, than others?
  • —Are people from particular regions portrayed as being abnormal/weaker/more pathetic than others?
  • —How do other characters in the clip treat the characters from different regions?
  • —What is the message the clip is trying to portray about regional identity?

Key Theorists:

  • Benedict Anderson (1983) maintains that the media play a vital role in constructing a national/regional identity as in reality the nation is too big for everyone to know each other yet they often have shared values ; “The unification of people in the modern world is achieved not by military but by cultural means, in particular the media system enables people (of a nation or region) to feel part of a coherent, meaningful and homogenous community.”
  • Andrew Higson (1998) writes; “Identity is generally understood to be the shared identity of naturalized inhabitants of a particular political-geographic space – this can be a particular nation or region.”
  • Higson (1998) claims that many TV dramas (such as Eastenders, Corrie etc) demonstrate the importance of community and patriarchal values; “Social and cultural differences seem less significant when shared. The common purpose pulls the individual characters of the drama together, forges them into an organic, self-functioning community and ensures that each person has a clear role in the community. This small, self-contained functional community can then be read as standing for the nation, which is thereby imagined as a consensual gathering together of the diverse interests of individuals who make up that community.”


Representation of Regional Identity #1

—Regional Identity refers to the part of the United Kingdom someone is from. It could refer to a general area such a “North” or “South”, a country such as “English” or “Scottish” or specific towns such as “London” or “Manchester.”

The notion is a part of a person’s identity is rooted not only in the country but also in the region they live in. A sense of belonging similar to that of national identity but on a smaller scale or level.

Northerners Stereotypes:

  • ‘Northern Monkeys’, Loud rude, drink a lot and of a lower status
  • Costume – Track suit or cheap/casual clothes
  • Dialogue/dialect – Vowel sounds over-pronounced
  • Make up – Over the top or minimal
  • Class/Status – Low

Southerners Stereotypes:

  • ‘Poncy Southerners’ arrogant and posh
  • Dialogue/dialect – Well spoken ‘ the rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain’
  • Costume – Suit and tie, tailored clothing and dresses
  • Props – Brief case
  • Make up – Classy and to a minimum
  • Class/Status – Middle/Upper

Scottish Stereotypes:

  • Humourless, hate other nations, alcoholic and violent
  • Dialogue/dialect – Strong accent ‘och’ ‘wee’
  • Costume – Kilt, tartan, Tam o’ Shanter
  • Location – Highlands, cold and vast open spaces
  • Props – Bagpipes, haggis, whisky
  • Appearance – Ginger hair and freckles
  • Class/Status – Lower class (farmers)

Scousers (Liverpool) Stereotypes:

Scouse is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool. The accent extends as far as Flintshire in Wales, Runcorn in Cheshire and Skelmersdale in Lancashire.

  • Dangerous; ‘Why does the river Mersey run through Liverpool? If it walked it would get mugged’
  • Dialogue/dialect – Flemmy, difficult to understand; ‘like’ prominent k’s
  • Costume – Tracksuits, very casual cheap looking clothing
  • Location – Pub/home
  • Props – Cheap looking jewellery
  • Make up – Minimal or over-the-top
  • Class/Status – Low

Welsh Stereotypes:

  • Small, dark haired people who play all rugby, sing in choirs, herd sheep or mine coal
  • Dialogue/dialect – Very ‘song-like’ and melodic, slow and exaggerated pronunciation
  • Costume – Rugby shirts
  • Location – Rugby pitch, church, pub, fields with sheep
  • Props – Sheep
  • Class/Status – Middle/Lower

Geordies Stereotypes:

Geordie is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside region of North East England and the name of the Northern English dialect spoken by its inhabitants. The term is associated with Tyneside, south Northumberland and northern parts of County Durham.

  • Stereotype – Loud, swear a lot, party animals and binge drinkers (help coined by Geordie Shore)
  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘way eye man’, difficult to understand
  • Costume – Revealing, tight clothing
  • Location – Busy town centres, clubs, urban areas
  • Make up – Over the top, fake tan, dark hair
  • Class/Status – Lower middle/ middle

Manc (Mancunians – Manchester) Stereotypes:

  • Stereotype – Loud, rude, funny and fond of fighting (Helped coined by Oasis)
  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘Oh, aye’ ‘Nowt’
  • Costume – Manchester United shirt
  • Location – Busy town centres
  • Class/Status – Low/lower middle

Yorkshire Stereotypes:

  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘Ey up’, ‘An’ Ah’ll tell thi that fer nowt’, don’t pronounce ‘t’s’
  • Costume – Flat caps, tweed jackets
  • Location – Open fields, country pubs, Local shops
  • Props – Whippets/Yorksire terrier and Yorkshire puddings
  • Make up – Minimal/pale
  • Class/Status – Low (farmers)

Brummies Stereotypes:

The accent and dialect of Birmingham, England. It is not the only accent of the West Midlands, although the term Brummie is often erroneously used in referring to all accents of the region.

  • Unintelligent and unfriendly
  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘Yow’ heavily pronunciation the ‘ow’ of ‘You’
  • Costume – Casual/ Cheap
  • Location – Busy, industrialised centres
  • Make up – Greasy hair
  • Class/Status – Low

Essex Stereotypes:

  • Image conscious, unintelligent, love to shop and party
  • Stereotype coined by TOWIE (The Only Way is Essex)
  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘Shut up’ ‘Oh my God’ = common phrases
  • Costume: Girls – Revealing/Over-the-top & boys look fashionable
  • Location – Clubs and boutiques
  • Props: Expensive, flashy, tacky handbags, up-to-date mobile phone
  • Make up – Fake tan, fake eyelashes and hair extensions
  • Class/Status – Lower Middle

Londoners (Northern boroughs) Stereotypes:

  • Dialogue/dialect – Well spoken, range of vocabulary
  • Costume – Cashmere jumpers/sweaters and suits
  • Location – Skyscrapers, swanky bars, posh homes
  • Props – Briefcase
  • Class/Status – Middle/upper

Londoners (Cockney/Southern boroughs) Stereotypes:

  • Dialogue/dialect – ‘Gorblimey’, Rhyming slang ‘apples and pairs = stairs’, dropping ‘t’s’
  • Costume – Flat caps
  • Location – Busy streets, market stalls
  • Class/Status – Low

Irish stereotypes:

  • Living in the countryside
  • Working in rural areas such as farms
  • Very religious
  • Good at dancing and singing
  • Very friendly but less intelligent